General Information

  • Magnesium is found within every cell of the human body
  • Is a cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions
  • Is essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, through the interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions
  • Is essential to all living organisms
  • Is vital for every system of the body
  • Is linked to other minerals such as Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium
  • Every body system requires magnesium

Because of the important interaction between phosphate and magnesium ions, magnesium is essential to the basic nucleic acid chemistry of life, and thus is essential to all living organisms.

Magnesium is found within every human cell and is commonly considered a natural “calcium antagonist” and counter ion for energy-rich ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and nucleic acids. ATP is used in cells as a coenzyme and is often called the “molecular unit of currency” of intracellular energy transfer as it transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. Magnesium antagonizes calcium-dependent release of acetylcholine, is a cofactor in over three hundred enzymatic reactions and critically stabilizes enzymes, including many ATP-generating reactions. ATP is required universally for glucose utilization, synthesis of fat, proteins, nucleic acids and coenzymes, muscle contraction, and many other processes. Interference with magnesium metabolism also influences these functions. ATP metabolism, muscle contraction, and relaxation, normal neurological function, and release of neurotransmitters are all magnesium dependent. Magnesium has been recognized as contributing to the regulation of vascular tone, heart rhythm, platelet-activated thrombosis, and bone formation. In muscle contraction, magnesium stimulates calcium re-uptake by the calcium-activated ATPase (adenosine triphosphatase).

There are two very general areas of the body where magnesium is found and that can be measured – extracellular and intracellular. Extracellular (outside the cells) magnesium accounts for approximately 1% of total body magnesium and is primarily found in serum and red blood cells (RBCs). Intracellular (inside the cells) magnesium accounts for 99% of total body magnesium in humans. Concentrations range from 5-20 mmol/L (millimoles per liter); 1-5% is ionized (the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge); the remainder is bound to proteins, negatively charged molecules, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

It is difficult to understand why physicians rely so heavily on serum levels of magnesium to determine deficiency in the body when the volume of magnesium in the blood is so low. The better option would be intracellular spectroscopy which is a reliable noninvasive method using rapidly metabolizing sublingual epithelial cells under Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy to reflect fast tissue changes of vital mineral electrolytes. This test provides results that correlate with heart, muscle, and deep organ tissue but there is no correlation with the blood. Essential mineral electrolytes are most prominent in epithelial tissue not in blood. As stated, 99% of magnesium is found in soft tissue and only 1% is found in blood. This test assists the practitioner with diagnosis, treatment protocols, management of heart disease, and other complex conditions where mineral electrolyte deficiency or imbalance is confirmed. When the appropriate tests are utilized to determine accurately the state of the body and treated, the quality of life can be greatly improved.

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