Below is a list of many different forms of magnesium with some of the properties and common uses. It should be remembered that all ingested (oral) forms of magnesium are laxatives and not recommended for regular, internal use by Health and Wisdom.
Magnesium acetate is the magnesium salt of acetic acid. It is deliquescent and upon heating, it decomposes to form magnesium oxide.
Magnesium aluminide is an intermetallic compound of magnesium and aluminum. Like many intermetallics, its compounds often have unusual stoichiometries with large and complex unit cells.
Magnesium aspartate, the magnesium salt of aspartic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium benzoate is a chemical compound formed from magnesium and benzoic acid. It was once used to treat gout and arthritis.
Magnesium bromide is a chemical compound of magnesium and bromine that is white and deliquescent. It is often used as a mild sedative and as an anticonvulsant for treatment of nervous disorders. It is water soluble and somewhat soluble in alcohol. It can be found naturally in small amounts in some minerals such as: bischofite and carnallite, and in sea water, such as that of the Dead Sea.
Magnesium carbonate is a white solid that occurs in nature as a mineral. Magnesium carbonate is also used in flooring, fireproofing, fire extinguishing compositions, cosmetics, dusting powder, and toothpaste. Other applications are as filler material, smoke suppressant in plastics, a reinforcing agent in neoprene rubber, a drying agent, a laxative to loosen the bowels, and color retention in foods. In addition, high purity magnesium carbonate is used as antacid and as an additive in table salt to keep it free flowing. Because of its water-insoluble, hygroscopic properties MgCO3 was first added to salt in 1911 to make the salt flow more freely. The Morton Salt company adopted the slogan “When it rains it pours” in reference to the fact that its salt would not stick together in humid weather.
Magnesium chloride is typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. The hydrated magnesium chloride can be extracted from brine or sea water. Magnesium chloride as the natural mineral bischofite is also extracted (solution mining) out of ancient sea beds, for example the Zechstein seabed in northwest Europe and the Permian Period seabed in the central U.S.; wells; oceans; and natural brine lakes, such as the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake.
Magnesium citrate, a magnesium salt of citric acid, is a chemical agent used medicinally as a saline laxative and to empty the bowel prior to a surgery or colonoscopy. It is available without a prescription, both as a generic brand or under the brand name Citromag or Citroma. It is also used as a magnesium supplement in pills. The magnesium content of magnesium citrate corresponds to about 11% by mass.
Magnesium diboride is a simple ionic binary compound that has proven to be an inexpensive and useful superconducting material.
Magnesium diglutamate is a magnesium acid salt of glutamic acid. It is used in foods as a flavor enhancer.
Magnesium diuranate is a compound of uranium. It is known in the uranium refining industry as “MDU” and forms the major part of some yellowcake mixtures. Yellowcakes are an intermediate product in the uranium refining process.
Magnesium fluoride is a white crystalline salt and is transparent over a wide range of wavelengths, with commercial uses in optics.
Magnesium gluconate is the magnesium salt of gluconic acid. There are data on the pharmacological properties of magnesium gluconate. Gluconic acid is the initial substrate for the reactions of pentose phosphate path of oxidation of glucose, so it was suggested that it may affect the energy metabolism of mitochondria. In Ukraine, magnesium gluconate, together with potassium gluconate in the drug “Rhythmocor” is used to treat heart disease. Pilot studies have shown efficacy in various cardiac arrhythmia. There is evidence that magnesium gluconate improves physical performance. This is possible due to the fact that structural gluconic acid is a component of pangamic acid, previously widely used in sports.
Magnesium hydride contains 7.66% by weight of hydrogen and has been studied as a potential hydrogen storage medium.
Magnesium hydroxide when suspended in water, it is often called milk of magnesia because of its milk-like appearance. The solid mineral form of magnesium hydroxide is known as brucite.
Magnesium iodide is typical ionic halides, being highly soluble in water. Magnesium iodide has few commercial uses but can be used to prepare compounds for organic synthesis.
Magnesium lactate, the magnesium salt of lactic acid, is a mineral supplement and is added to some food and beverages as an acidity regulator.
Magnesium levulinate, the magnesium salt of levulinic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium L-threonate is a magnesium salt of L-threonic acid.
Magnesium malate, the magnesium salt of malic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium nitrate is very soluble in both water and ethanol. Magnesium nitrate occurs in mines and caverns as nitromagnesite. This form is not common, although it may be present where guano contacts magnesium-rich rock. It is used in the ceramics, printing, chemical and agriculture industries. Fertilizer blends containing magnesium nitrate usually have ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium nitrate and micronutrients; these blends are used in the greenhouse and hydroponics trade. Since magnesium nitrate has a high affinity for water it is occasionally used as a desiccant.
Magnesium nitride is an inorganic compound of magnesium and nitrogen. At room temperature and pressure it is a greenish yellow powder. Magnesium nitride was the catalyst in the first practical synthesis of borazon (cubic boron nitride).
Magnesium orotate, the magnesium salt of orotic acid, is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. It is formed by an ionic bond between one magnesium and one oxygen atom. Magnesium oxide is hygroscopic in nature and care must be taken to protect it from moisture.
Magnesium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent. It is sold under the trade name anhydrone. It was used as a desiccant to dry gas or air samples, but is no longer advised due to hazards inherent in perchlorates. It is dried by heating at 250 °C under vacuum.
Magnesium peroxide is a fine powder peroxide with a white to off-white color. It is similar to calcium peroxide because magnesium peroxide also releases oxygen by breaking down at a controlled rate with a hydrous fluid. Besides this it can be used in bleaching, disinfecting, and deodorizing.
Magnesium phosphate is a general term for salts of magnesium and phosphate appearing in three forms with various forms used as laxatives and antacids.
Magnesium pidolate, the magnesium salt of pidolic acid (pyroglutamic acid), is a mineral supplement.
Magnesium salicylate is a common analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate muscular pain. It is also used to treat headaches, general back pain, and certain joint pains like arthritis.
Magnesium silicide is an inorganic compound consisting of magnesium and silicon. As a powder magnesium silicide is dark blue or slightly purple in color. Silicon dioxide found in sand and glass, when heated with magnesium forms magnesium silicide. Magnesium silicide is used to create aluminum alloys of the 6xxx group, containing up to approximately 1.5% magnesium silicide. An alloy of this group can be age-hardened to form Guinier-Preston zones and a very fine precipitate, both resulting in increased strength of the alloy.
Magnesium stearate, also called octadecanoic acid, magnesium salt, is a white substance which is solid at room temperature.
Magnesium sulfate (or magnesium sulphate) is commonly called Epsom salt, from the town of Epsom in Surrey, England, where the salt was distilled from the springs that arise where the porous chalk of the North Downs meets non-porous London clay. Another hydrate form is kieserite.
Magnesium sulfide is a white crystalline material but often is encountered in an impure form that is brown and non-crystalline powder. It is generated industrially in the production of metallic iron.
Magnesium sulfite is the magnesium salt of sulfurous acid and is used in the manufacture of paper.
Magnesium taurate is a supplement that contains both magnesium mineral and the amino acid taurine. This combination provides better absorption in the intestines.
Magnesium trisilicate is an inorganic compound that is used as a food additive. The additive is often employed by fast food chains to absorb fatty acids and remove impurities that form in edible oils during the frying process.
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